sidratimes
sidratimes:

A family practice physician in rural Maine obtains a blood sample, isolates the RBCs, removes the antibodies and adds antihuman globulin. He note that the erythrocytes aggregate. How would you interpret these results?A. Negative direct Coombs testB. Positive indirect Coombs testC. Colonic adenocarcinomaD. Negative indirect Coombs testE. Positive direct Coombs testThe patient in question has a hemoglobin value of 7.4 g/dL and an elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin. Which is the likely diagnosis?A. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuriaB. Traumatic hemolysisC. Hereditary elliptocytosisD. Systemic lupus erythematosusE. Erythroblastosis fetalis
Both E
Both direct and indirect tests are antigen-antibody reactions. Differences:
Direct Coombs Test 
Uses patient’s RBCs, which are washed clear of plasma, and then incubated with a known antibody. 
If they agglutinate, then the direct test is positive. 
Test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Indirect Coombs also tests for a reaction, butUses patient’s serum (not rbcs).
Patient’s serum is added to rbcs that are known to have a certain antigenicity.
If the serum contains the suspected antibodies, then there will be a reaction, and the test is positive.
Screen pregnant women for the presence of antibodies that could cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. 
It is also used in cross matching blood before transfusion.
 
 
direct—-rbc already have attached antibody..only add anti human igindirect-to test for antibody—add rbc to the serum,n then add anti human ig
Coombs test (aka Coombs’ test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology.Direct Coombs test (aka s direct antiglobulin test or DAT) Indirect Coombs test (aka indirect antiglobulin test or IAT)The direct Coombs test is used to detect red blood cells sensitized with igG alloantibody, IgG autoantibody, and complement proteins. It detects antibodies bound to the surface of red blood cells in vivo. The red blood cells (RBCs) are washed (removing the patient’s own plasma) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as “Coombs reagent”). If this produces agglutination of the RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive.The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women, and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient’s serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood, and the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive

sidratimes:

A family practice physician in rural Maine obtains a blood sample, isolates the RBCs, removes the antibodies and adds antihuman globulin. He note that the erythrocytes aggregate. How would you interpret these results?
A. Negative direct Coombs test
B. Positive indirect Coombs test
C. Colonic adenocarcinoma
D. Negative indirect Coombs test
E. Positive direct Coombs test

The patient in question has a hemoglobin value of 7.4 g/dL and an elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin. Which is the likely diagnosis?
A. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
B. Traumatic hemolysis
C. Hereditary elliptocytosis
D. Systemic lupus erythematosus
E. Erythroblastosis fetalis

Both E

Both direct and indirect tests are antigen-antibody reactions. Differences:

Direct Coombs Test 

  • Uses patient’s RBCs, which are washed clear of plasma, and then incubated with a known antibody.
  • If they agglutinate, then the direct test is positive. 
  • Test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Indirect Coombs also tests for a reaction, but
  • Uses patient’s serum (not rbcs).
  • Patient’s serum is added to rbcs that are known to have a certain antigenicity.
  • If the serum contains the suspected antibodies, then there will be a reaction, and the test is positive.
  • Screen pregnant women for the presence of antibodies that could cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. 
  • It is also used in cross matching blood before transfusion.

 

 

direct—-rbc already have attached antibody..only add anti human ig
indirect-to test for antibody—add rbc to the serum,n then add anti human ig

Coombs test (aka Coombs’ test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology.

Direct Coombs test (aka s direct antiglobulin test or DAT) 
Indirect Coombs test (aka indirect antiglobulin test or IAT)

The direct Coombs test is used to detect red blood cells sensitized with igG alloantibody, IgG autoantibody, and complement proteins. It detects antibodies bound to the surface of red blood cells in vivo. The red blood cells (RBCs) are washed (removing the patient’s own plasma) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as “Coombs reagent”). If this produces agglutination of the RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive.

The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women, and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient’s serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood, and the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive

mynotes4usmle
mynotes4usmle:

SPINAL CORD LESIONS

EDIT:
Hello guys! Just wanted to correct something from this chart here. Poliovirus is single stranded RNA, icosahedral, naked virus. Not ds! Not DNA! Not ciruclar! All RNA viruses are ss, except Reovirus
Please, keep in mind that my charts may have mistakes. I share them with all the best intentions in the world, but PLEASE don’t trust them 100%.
Always assume that there might be something wrong; and if there is, please let me know. This way, we all learn together!
R.

mynotes4usmle:

SPINAL CORD LESIONS

EDIT:

Hello guys! Just wanted to correct something from this chart here. Poliovirus is single stranded RNA, icosahedral, naked virus. Not ds! Not DNA! Not ciruclar! All RNA viruses are ss, except Reovirus

Please, keep in mind that my charts may have mistakes. I share them with all the best intentions in the world, but PLEASE don’t trust them 100%.

Always assume that there might be something wrong; and if there is, please let me know. This way, we all learn together!

R.

md-admissions

md-admissions:

levanna:

catsbeaversandducks:

Post-it Notes Left on the Train

Writer and illustrator October Jones, the creative genius behind Text From Dog and these funny train commute doodles, is at it again with these hilarious motivational post-it notes that he leaves on the train and in other random places.The upbeat doodles, which star Jones’ adorable character Peppy the Inspirational Cat, convey positive and funny messages meant to motivate daily commuters. Whether you’re feeling the Monday blues or in need of some encouragement, Jones’ delightful post-it notes are sure to brighten your day and remind you just how awesome you are.

Via My Modern Metropolis 

This reminds me of mark.

these are BRILLIANT